Manual Testing Terminology


1.    Differentiate between QA and QC?
     QA:
It is process oriented.
It envolve in entire process of software developement.
Prevention oriented.
    QC:
It is product oriented.
Work to examine the quality of product.
Detection oriented.

2.    What is a bug?
A computer bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working correctly or produces an incorrect result.

3.    What is a test case?
Testcase is set of input values, execution preconditions,expected results and execution
postconditions, developed for a particular objective or test conditons, such as to exercise a paticular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requiremnt.

4.    What is the purpose of test plan in your project?
test plan document is prepared by the test lead,it contains the contents like introduction,objectives,test stratergy,scope,test items,program modules user
procedures,features to be tested features not to tested approach,pass or fail criteria,testing process,test deliverables,testing,tasks,responsibilities,resources,schedu
le,environmental requirements,risks & contingencies,change management procedures,plan approvals,etc all these things help a test manager undersatnd the testing he should do &
what he should follow for testing that particular project.

5.    When the relationship occur between tester and developer?
developer is the one who sends the application to the tester by doing all the necessary code in the application and sends the marshal id to the tester.The tester is the one who gives all the input/output and checks whether he is getting reqd output or not.A developer is the one who works on inside interfacing where as the tester is the one who works on outside interfacing

6.    When testing will starts in a project?
the testing is not getting started after the coding.after release the build the testers perform the smoke test.smoke test is the first test which is done by the testing team.this is according to the testing team.but, before the releasing of a build the developers will perform the unit testing.

7.    If a bug has high severity then usually that is treated as high priority,then why do priority given by testengineers/project managers and severity given by testers?
High severity bugs affects the end users ....testers tests an application with the users point of view, hence it is given as high severity.High priority is given to the bugs which affects the production.Project managers assign a high priority based on production point of view.

8.    What is the difference between functional testing and regresion testing
functional testing is a testing process where we test the functionality/behaviour of each functional component of the application...i.e.minimize button,transfer button,links etc.i.e we check what is each component doing in that application...
regression testing is the testing the behaviour of the application of the unchanged areas when there is a change in the build.i.e we chk whether the changed requirement has altered the behaviour of the unchanged areas.the impacted area may be the whole of the application or
some part of the application...

9.    Do u know abt integration testing,how do u intregate diff modules?
integration testing means testing an application to verify the data flows between the module.for example, when you are testing a bank application ,in account balence it shows the
100$as the available balence.but in database it shows the 120$. main thing is "integration done by the developers and integration testing done by the testers"

10. Do u know abt configuration management tool,what is the purpose of maintaining all the documents in configuration manage ment tool?
It is focused primarily on maintaining the file changes in the history.
Documents are subjected to change For ex: consider the Test case document .
Initially you draft the Test cases document and place it in Version control tool(Visual Source Safe for ex).Then you send it for Peer Review .They will provide some comments and that document will be saved in VSS again.Similary the document undergoes changes and all the changes history will be maintained in Version control.
It helps in referring to the previous version of a document.
Also one person can work on a document (by checking out) at a time.
Also it keeps track who has done the changes ,time and date.
Generally all the Test Plan, Test cases,Automation desgin docs are placed in VSS.
Proper access rights needs to be given so that the documents dont get deleted or modified.

11. How you test database and explain the procedure?
Database Testing is purely done based on the requirements. You may generalize a few features but they won't be complete. In general we look at
1. Data Correctness (Defaults)
2. Data Storage/Retreival
3. Database Connectivity (across multiple platforms)
4. Database Indexing
5. Data Integrity
6. Data Security
      
12. Suppose if you press a link in yahooshopping site in leads to some other company website?how to test if any problem in linking from one site to another site?

1)first i will check whether the mouse cusor is turning into hand icon or not?
2)i will check the link is highlingting when i place the curosr on the link or not?
3)the site is opening or not?
4)if the site is opening then i will check is it opening in another window or the same window that the link itself exitst(to check userfriendly ness of the link)
5)how fast that website is opening?
6)is the correct site is opening according to the link?
7)all the items in the site are opeing or not?
8)all other sublinks are opening or not?

13. What are the contents of FRS?

F → Function Behaviours
R → Requirements (Outputs) of the System that is defined.
S → Specification ( How, What, When, Where, and Way it behavior's.
FRS  →  Function Requirement Specification.
 This is a Document which contains the Functional behavior
of the system or a feature. This document is also know as EBS External Behaviour Specification - Document. Or EFS External Function  Specification.

14. What is meant by Priority nad severity?

Priority means "Importance of the defect w.r.t cutomer requirement"
Severity means "Seriousness of the defect w.r.t functionality"

15. What is meant by Priority nad severity?
Severity:  
1. This is assigned by the Test Engineer
2. This is to say how badly the devation that is occuring is affecting the other modules of the build or release.
Priority:
1. This is assigned by the Developer.
2. This is to say how soon the bug as to be fixed in the main code, so that it pass the basic requirement.
Eg., The code is to generate some values with some vaild input conditions. The priority will be assigned so based on the following conditions:
a> It is not accepting any value
b> It is accepting value but output is in non-defined format (say Unicode Characters).
    A good example i used some unicode characters to generate a left defined arrow, it displayed correctly but after saving changes it gave some address value from the
stack of this server. For more information mail me i will let you know.

16. Give me some example for high severity and low priority defect?
if suppose the title of the particular concern is not spelled corectly,it would give a negative impact.eg ICICC is spelled as a tittle for the project of the concern ICICI.then it is a high severity,low priority defect.

17. What is basis for testcase review?
the main basis for the test case review is
1.testing techniques oriented review
2.requirements oriented review
3.defects oriented review.

18. What are the contents of SRS documents?
Software requirements specifications and Functional requirements specifications.

19. What is difference between the Web application testing and Client Server testing?
Testing the application in intranet(withoutbrowser) is an example for client -server.(The company firewalls for the server are not open to outside world. Outside people cannot access the application.)So there will be limited number of people using that application.
Testing an application in internet(using browser) is called webtesting. The application which is accessable by numerous numbers around the world(World wide web.)
So testing web application, apart from the above said two testings there are many other testings to be done depending on the type of web application we are testing.
If it is a secured application (like banking site- we go for security testing etc.)
If it is a ecommerce testing application we go for Usability etc.. testings.

20. Explain your web application archtechture?
web application is tested in 3 phases
1. web tier testing --> browser compatibility 
2. middle tier testing --> functionality, security
3. data base tier testing --> database integrity, contents

21. Suppose the product/appication has to deliver to client at 5.00PM,At that time you or your team member caught a high severity defect at 3PM.(Remember defect is high severity)But the the client is cannot wait for long time.You should deliver the product at 5.00Pm exactly.then what is the procedure you follow?
the bug is high severity only so we send the application to the client and find out the severity is preyority or not. if its preyority then we ask him to wait.
Here we found defects/bugs in the last minute of the deliveryor realese date
Then we have two options
1.explain the situation to client and ask some more time  to fix the bug.
2.If the client is not ready to give some some time then analyse the impact of defect/bug and try to find    workarounds for the defect and mention these issues   in the release notes as known issues or known   limitations or known bugs.  Here the workaround means remeady process to be followed  to overcome the  defect effect.
3.Normally this known issues or known limitations(defects) will be fixed in next version or next release of the  software





22. Give me examples for  high priority and low severity defects?
Suppose in one banking application there is one module ATM Facility. in that ATM facility when ever we are dipositing/withdrawing money it is not showing any conformation message but actually at the back end it is happening properly with out any mistake means only missing
of message . in this case as it is happenig properly so there is nothing wrong with the application but as end user is not getting any conformation message so he/she will be
confuse for this.So we can consider this issue as HIGH Priority but LOW Severity defects..

23. Explain about Bug life cycle?
1)tester->
2) open defect->
3)send to developer
4)->if accepted moves to step5 else sends the bug to tester gain
5)fixed by developer ->
6)regression testing->
7)no problem inbuilt and signoff
8)->if problem in built reopen the issue send to step3

24. How can you report the defect using excel sheet?
To report the defect using excel sheet
Mention    :    The Feture that been effected.
mention    :    Test Case ID  (Which fail you can even mention any other which are              dependency on this bug)
Mention    :    Actual Behavior
Mention    :    Expected Behavior as mentioned in Test Case or EFS or EBS or SRS document                                                                                     with section
Mention    :    Your Test Setup used during Testing
Mention    :    Steps to Re-Produce the bug
Mention    :    Additional Info
Mention    :    Attach a Screen Shot if it is a GUI bug
Mention    :    Which other features it is blocking because of this bug that you are unable to 
                     execute the test cases.
Mention    : How much time you took to execute that test case or follow that specific TC
                  which leaded to bug

25. If you have executed 100 test cases ,every test case passed but apart from these testcase you found some defect for which testcase is not prepared,thwn how you can report the bug?
While reporting this bug into bugtracking tool you will generate the testcase imean put the steps to reproduce the bug.

26. What is the diffn betn web based application and client server application
The basic difference between web based application & client server application is that the web application are 3 trier & client based are 2 trier.In web based changes are made at one place & it is refelected on other layers also whereas client based separate changes need be installed on client machine also.

27. What is testplan? and can you tell the testplan contents?
Test plan is a high level document which explains the test strategy,time lines and available resources in detail.Typically a test plan contains:
-Objective
-Test strategy
-Resources
-Entry criteria
-Exit criteria
-Use cases/Test cases
-Tasks
-Features to be tested and not tested
-Risks/Assumptions.

28. How many testcases can you write per a day, an average figure?
Complex test cases 4-7 per day
Medium test cases 10-15 per day
Normal test cases 20-30 per day

29. Who will prepare FRS(functional requirement documents)?
What is the importent of FRS?
The Business Analyst will pre pare the FRS.
Based on this we are going to prepare test cases.
It contains
1. Over view of the project
2. Page elements of the Application(Filed Names)
3. Proto type of the of the application
4. Business rules and Error States
5. Data Flow diagrams
6. Use cases contains Actor and Actions and System Responces

30. How you can decide the number of testcases are enough for testing the given module?
The developed test cases are coverd all the functionality of the application we can say testcases are enough.If u know the functionality covered or not u can use RTM.

31. What is the difference between Retesting and Data Driven Testing?
Retesting:it is manual process in which apllication will be tested with entire new set of data.
DataDriven Testing(DDT)-It is a Automated testing process inwhich application is tested with multiple test data.DDT is very easy procedure than retesting because the tester should sit and need to give different new inputsmanually from front end and it is very tedious and boring
prodedure.

32. What is regression testing?
After the Bug fixed ,testing the application whether the fixed bug is affecting remaining functionality of the application or not.Majorly in regression testing Bug fixed module and it's
connected modules are checked for thier integrity after bug fixation.

33. How do u test web application?

Web application testing

Should have the following features like
1.Attractive User Interface(logos, fonts, alignment)
2.High Usability options
3.Securiry features(if it has login feature)
4.Database(back end).
5.Perfromance(appearing speed of the application on client system)
6.Able to work on different Browers(Browser compatibility)  ,O.S compatibility(technicalled called as portability)
7.Broken link testing.........etc.

So we need to follow out the following test strategy.
1.Functionality Testing
2.Performance Testing(Load,volume,Stress,Scalability)
3.Usability Testing
4.User Interface Testing(colors,fonts,alignments...)
5.Security Testing
6.Browser compatibility Testing(differnt versions and    different browser)
7.Brokenlink and Navigation Testing
8.Database(backend)Testing(data integrity)
9.Portability testing(Multi O.s Support)....etc




34. How do u perform regression testing, means what test cases u select for regression ?

Regression testing will be conducted after any bug fixed or any functionality changed.
During defect fixing procedure some part of coding may be changed or functionality may be manipulated. In this case the old test cases will be updated or completely re written
according to new features of the application where bug fixed area.Here  possible areas are old test cases will be executed as usual or some new testcases will be added to existing testcases or some test cases may be deleted.

35. What are the client side scripting languages and server side scripting languages ?

client side scripting langages are 
                    javascript,VbScript,PHP...etc
Server side Scripting languages are
                    Perl,JSP,ASP,PHP..etc
Clent side scipting languages are useful to validate the inputs or user actions from userside or client side.
Server side Scripting languages are to validate the  inputs at server side.
This scripting languages provide security for the application. and also provides  dynamic nature to web or client server application
cleint side scripting is good because it won't send the unwanted input's to server for validation.from frontend it self it validated the user inputs and restricts the user activities and guides him

36. If a very low defect (user interface )is detected by u and the developer not compromising with that defect what will u do?

User interface defect is a high visibility defect and easy to reproduce.
Follow the below procedure
1.Reproduce the defect
2.Capture the defect screen shots
3.Document  the proper inputs that you are used to get the    defect in the derfect report
3.send the defect report with screen shots,i/ps and procedure for  defect  reproduction.
before going to this you must check your computer hard ware configuration that is same as developper system configuration.and anlso check the system graphic drivers are properly
installed or not.if the problem in graphic drivers the User interface error will come.
so first check your side if it is correct from your sidethen report the defect by following the above method.

37. If u are only person in the office and client asked u for some changes and u didn,t get what the client asked for what will u do?

One thing  here is very important. Nobody will ask test engineer to change software that is
not your duty, even if it is related to testing and anybody is not there try to listen carefully if you are not understand ask him again and inform to the corresponding people immediately.
Here the client need speedy service, we(our company) should not get any blame from customer side.

38. How to get top two salaries from employee tables ?
Select * from emp e where 2>=(select count(*) from emp e where sal>e.sal) order by  desc sal.

39.  How many Test-Cases can be written for the calculator having 0-9 buttons, Add,Equalto buttons.The testcases should be focussed only on add-functionality but mot GUI.What are those test-cases?

Test-Cases for the calculator
so here we have 12 buttons totalie 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,ADD,Equalto -12 buttons
here u can press atleat 4 buttons at a time minimum for example   0+1= for zero u should press 'zero' labled buttonfor plus u should press '+' labled buttonfor one  u should press 'one'  labled buttonfor equalto u should press 'equalto'  labled button 0+1=here + and = positions will not varyso first number position can be varied from 0 to 9 i.e from permutation and combinations u can fill that space in 10 waysin the same waysecond number position  can be varied from 0 to 9 i.e from permutation and combinations u can fill that space in 10 ways
Total number of possibilities are =10x10=100
This is exhaustive testing methodology and this is not possible in all cases.
In mathematics we have one policy that the the function satisfies the starting and ending values of a range then it can  satisfy  for entire range of values from starting to ending.
then we check the starting conditions i.e one test case for '0+0=' (expected values you know thatis '0')then another testcase for '9+9='(expected values you know thatis '18')only two testcases are enough to test the calculator functionality.

40.  What is positive and negative testing explian with example?

Positive Testing - testing the system by giving the valid data.
Negative Testing - testing the system by giving the Invalid data.
For Ex,an application contains a textbox and as per the user's Requirements the textbox should accept only Strings.By providing only String as input data to the textbox & to check whether its working properly or not means it is Positive Testing.If giving the input other than String means it is negative Testing..

41.  How will you prepare Test plan. What are the techniques involved in preparing the Test plan.

Test plan means planning for the release. This includes Project background
Test Objectives: Brief overview and description of the document
Test Scope: setting the boundaries
Features being tested (Functionalities)
Hardware requirements
Software requirements
Entrance Criteria (When to start testing):
       Test environment established, Builder received from developer, Test case prepared and reviewed.
Exit criteria (when to stop testing):
   All bug status cycle are closed, all functionalities are tested, and all high and medium bugs are resolved.
Project milestones: dead lines

42.  What are the Defect Life Cycle?
Defect life cycle is also called as bug life cycle. It has 6stages namely
1.new: found new bug
2.assigned: bud assigned to developer
3.open : developer is fixing the bug
4.fixed : developer has fixed the bug
5.retest: tester retests the application
6.closed/reopened: if it is ok tester gives closed stauselse he reopens and sends back to developer.

43.  Expalin about metrics Management?
Metrics: is nothing but a measurement analysis.Measurment analysis and Improvement is one of the process area in CMM I L2.

44. What is performance Testing and Regression Testing?
Performance Testing:-testing the present wroking condition of the product
Regression Testing:-Regression Testing is checking for the newly added functionality causing any erros interms of functionality and the common functionality should be stable
in the latest and the previous versions

45. How do you review testcase?? Type of Review ?
Types of reviewing test cases depends upon company standards,viz , peer review,team lead review,roject manager review. Some times client may also review the test cases reg what is approach following for project.

46. In which way tester get Build A, BUild B, ....Build Z of an application, just explain the process ?
After preparation of testcases project manager will release software release note in that Document there will be URL path  of the website link from from that we will receive
the build In case of web server projects, you will be provided with an URL or a 92.168.***.*** (Web address) which will help you access the project using a browser from your system.

In case of Client server, the build is placed in the VSS (Configuration tool) which will help you get the .exe downloaded to your computer.

47. Apart from bug reporting wat is ur involvement in projectlife cycle ?
As a Test engineer We design test cases,prepare testcases Execute Testcases, track the bugs, analyse the results report the bugs. invovled in regression testing, performance of system
testing  system intergration testing At last preparation of Test summary Report

48. Contents of test report ?

There are two documents,which should be prepared at particular phase.
1.Test Results document.
2.Test Report document.
Test Results doc will be prepared at the phase of each type of Testing like FULL FUNCTIONAL TEST PASS, REGRESSION TEST PASS,SANITY TEST PASS etc. Test case execution against the application. Once you prepared this doc, we will send the doc to our TL and PM. By seeing the Test Results doc ,TL will come to know the coverage part of the test case.Here I
am giving you the contents used in the Test Results doc.

1.Build No
2.Version Name
3.Client OS
4.Feature set
5.Main Feature
6.Defined Testcases on each feature.
7.QA engineer Name
8.Test ecases executed.(Includes pass and fail)
9.Testcases on HOLD(Includes blocking testcases and deferred Testcases)
10.Covereage Report(Which includes the coverage ratings in % ,like % of testcases covered,% of testcases failed)

Coming to Test report,generally we will prepare Test report ,once we rolled out the product to our client.This document will be prepared by TL and delivered to the client.Mainly,this document describes the what we have done in the project,chievements we have reached,our
learnings in throughout the project etc...The other name for Test report is Project Closure Report and we will summerize the all the activities,which have taken place in through out the project.Here I am giving your the contents covered in the Test Report.
1.Test Environment(Should be covered the OS,Application or webservers,Mahchine names,Database,etc...)
2.Test Methods(Types of Tests,we have done in the project like Functional Testing,Platform Testing,regression Testing,etc..
3.Major areas Covered.
4.Bug Tracking Details.(Includes inflow and outflow of the bus in our delivered project)
5.Work schedule(When we start the testing and we finished)
6.Defect Analasys
6.1 Defects logged in different types of tests like Funcational Test,regressiion Test as per area wised.
6.2 State of the Defects at end of the Test cycle.
6.3 Root cause analysys for the bugs marked as NOT A BUG.
7.QA observations or learnings throught the life cycle.



49. Write high level test cases ?
Write all the test cases under high level TC ,which can be covered the main functionalities like
Creation ,edition, deletion, etc....as per prescribed in the screen. Write all the test cases under low level TC, which can be covered the screen, like input fields are displayed as per the requirements, buttons are enabled or disabled, and test case for low priority functionalities.
Example a screen contains two edit boxes login and password and a pust buttons OK and Reset and check box for the label "Remember my password" .Now let us write high level TC
and low level  test cases.

HIGH LEVEL TC
1.Verify that User is able to login with valid login and valid password.
2.Verify that User is not able to login with invalid login and valid password.
etc...
..
3.Verify that Reset button clears the filled screen.
4.Verify that a pop up message is displayed for blank login.
etc...
etc..

LOW LEVEL TC
1.Verify that after launching the URL of the application below fields are displayes in the screen.
1.Login Name 2.Password.3.OK BUTTON 4.RESET button etc..
5.check box,provided for the label "remember my pwd" is unchecked.
2.Verify that OK button should be disabled before selecting login and passwrod fields.
3.Verify that OK button should ne enabled after selecting login and password.
4.Verify that User is able to check the check box,providedfor the label "remember my pwd".
etc..
In this way,we can categorise all the test cases under HIGH LEVEL and LOW LEVEL.

50. What is test scenario ?
Test scenario will be framed on basis of the requirement, which need to be checked. For that, we will frame set of test cases ,in other terms, we can say all the conditions, which can be determined the testing coverage against business requirement. Please see the below example,which is exactly matched to my explanation.
As we know all most all the application are having login screen, which contains login name and password. Here is the test scenario for login screen.
Scenario: USER'S LOGIN
Condtions to be checked to test the above scenario:
----------------------------------------------------
1.Test login field and Password fields indicisually.
2.Try to login with valid login and valid password.
3.Try to login with invaling login and valid pwd. etcc........................................

51. What is build duration ?
It is a time gap between old version build and new version build  in new version build some new extra features are added

52. What is test deliverables ?

Test deliverables are nothing but documents preparing after testing like test plan document test case template bug report template Test deliverables will be delivered to the client not only for the completed  activities ,but also for the activites, which we are implementing for the better productivity.(As per the company's standards).Here I am giving you some of the Test deliverables in my project.
1.QA TestPlan
2.Testcase Docs
3.QA Testplan,if we are using Automation.
4.Automation scripts
5.QA Coverage Matrix and defect matrix.
6.Traceability Matrix
7.Test Results doc
8.QA Schedule doc(describes the deadlines)
9.Test Report or Project Closure Report.(Prepared once we rolled out the project to client)
10.Weekly status report(sent by PM to the client)
11.Release Notes.

53. What is your involvement  in test plan ?
Test lead is involved in preparing test plan test entgineers are no way related in preparing test plan role TE is test case design ,and execution and bugtraking and reporting them Genarally TL is involed in preparation of the TestPlan.But it is not mandatory only TL will take main part in the preparaion of the TP.Test engineer can suggest to TL,if he(or) she has good understanding on project and resources,if he or she has more exp with the project,if TL is wrongly given deadlines.If your suggestions are valid,TL will incorporate all of them to the TestPlan.But in most of the companies Test engineers are just audians.

54. Which test cases are not to be automated ?
All the test cases which are related to a feature of the product, that keeps on changing (there are always some or the other enhancements in it). Frequent enhancements may change the UI, add/remove few controls. Hence such cases, if automated, would involve lot of a intenance

55. If a project is long term project , requirements are also changes then test plan will change or not ? Why ?
Yes..definitely. If requirement changes, the design documents, specifications (for that particular module which implements the requiremnts) will also change. Hence the test plan would also need to be updated. This is because "REsource Allocation" is one section in the test
plan. We would need to write new test cases,review, and execute it. Hence resource allocation would have to be done accordingly. As a result the Test plan would change

56.  Explain VSS ?
Virtual Sourse Safe...
After complition of all phages From development side developer store the code in development folder of VSS. Testing team copy code from that folder to testing folder, after completing above phases from testing, testers put the build in base line folder. It is version control Tool
Mainly useful to developer, to storing code and maintains version Copying a code from VSS By devoloper is called CHECK-IN Upload the code in to VSS is called CHECK-OUT.

57. Who will assign severity & priority ?
The tester/dev should give the priority based on severity of the bug
Severity means: is the impact of the bug on the app.i.e seriousness of the bug interms of the  functionality.
Priority means: is how soon it should get fixed i.e importance of the bug in terms of customer

58. What is the Difference between Stub Testing and Driver Testing?

Stub testing:
In top down approach,a core module is developed. To test that core module, small dummy modules are used. So stubs are small dummy modules that test the core module.

Driver testing:
In bottom up approach, small modules are developed. To test them a dummy core module called driver is developed.

59. What is a "Good Tester"?

Is one who tries to break the developers software and in a position to venture the bugs. so that atleast 80% bugs free software can deliver.

6 comments:

  1. For the question umber 16, if ICICC is spelled as a tittle for the project of the concern ICICI, it is a High priority but Low Severity defect.

    ReplyDelete
  2. yeah that is indeed a validconcern raised by you. it is a high priority defect and low severity as impact of this defect to test execution is nil.

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