ISTQB Certification Foundation Level Terms 4

input domain: The set from which valid input values can be selected.

inspection: A type of peer review that relies on visual examination of documents to detect
defects, e.g. violations of development standards and non-conformance to higher level
documentation. The most formal review technique and therefore always based on a
documented procedure.

installability: The capability of the software product to be installed in a specified

installability testing: The process of testing the installability of a software product.

installation guide: Supplied instructions on any suitable media, which guides the installer
through the installation process. This may be a manual guide, step-by-step procedure,
installation wizard, or any other similar process description.

installation wizard: Supplied software on any suitable media, which leads the installer
through the installation process. It normally runs the installation process, provides
feedback on installation results, and prompts for options.

instrumentation: The insertion of additional code into the program in order to collect
information about program behavior during execution, e.g. for measuring code coverage.

instrumenter: A software tool used to carry out instrumentation.

intake test: A special instance of a smoke test to decide if the component or system is ready
for detailed and further testing. An intake test is typically carried out at the start of the test
execution phase.

integration: The process of combining components or systems into larger assemblies.

integration testing: Testing performed to expose defects in the interfaces and in the
interactions between integrated components or systems.

interface testing: An integration test type that is concerned with testing the interfaces
between components or systems.

interoperability: The capability of the software product to interact with one or more
specified components or systems.

interoperability testing: The process of testing to determine the interoperability of a
software product.

invalid testing: Testing using input values that should be rejected by the component or

isolation testing: Testing of individual components in isolation from surrounding
components, with surrounding components being simulated by stubs and drivers, if needed.

iterative development model: A development life cycle where a project is broken into a
usually large number of iterations. An iteration is a complete development loop resulting in
a release (internal or external) of an executable product, a subset of the final product under
development, which grows from iteration to iteration to become the final product.

keyword driven testing: A scripting technique that uses data files to contain not only test
data and expected results, but also keywords related to the application being tested. The
keywords are interpreted by special supporting scripts that are called by the control script
for the test.

LCSAJ: A Linear Code Sequence And Jump, consisting of the following three items
(conventionally identified by line numbers in a source code listing): the start of the linear
sequence of executable statements, the end of the linear sequence, and the target line to
which control flow is transferred at the end of the linear sequence.

LCSAJ coverage: The percentage of LCSAJs of a component that have been exercised by a
test suite. 100% LCSAJ coverage implies 100% decision coverage.

LCSAJ testing: A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute

learnability: The capability of the software product to enable the user to learn its application.

level test plan: A test plan that typically addresses one test level.

load profile: A specification of the activity which a component or system being tested may
experience in production. A load profile consists of a designated number of virtual users
who process a defined set of transactions in a specified time period and according to a
predefined operational profile.

load testing: A type of performance testing conducted to evaluate the behavior of a
component or system with increasing load, e.g. numbers of parallel users and/or numbers
of transactions, to determine what load can be handled by the component or system.

low level test case: A test case with concrete (implementation level) values for input data and
expected results. Logical operators from high level test cases are replaced by actual values
that correspond to the objectives of the logical operators. See also high level test case.

maintenance: Modification of a software product after delivery to correct defects, to improve
performance or other attributes, or to adapt the product to a modified environment.

maintenance testing: Testing the changes to an operational system or the impact of a
changed environment to an operational system.

maintainability: The ease with which a software product can be modified to correct defects,
modified to meet new requirements, modified to make future maintenance easier, or
adapted to a changed environment.

maintainability testing: The process of testing to determine the maintainability of a software

management review: A systematic evaluation of software acquisition, supply, development,
operation, or maintenance process, performed by or on behalf of management that
monitors progress, determines the status of plans and schedules, confirms requirements and
their system allocation, or evaluates the effectiveness of management approaches to
achieve fitness for purpose.

master test plan: A test plan that typically addresses multiple test levels.

maturity: (1) The capability of an organization with respect to the effectiveness and
efficiency of its processes and work practices.

measure: The number or category assigned to an attribute of an entity by making a

measurement: The process of assigning a number or category to an entity to describe an
attribute of that entity.

measurement scale: A scale that constrains the type of data analysis that can be performed
on it.

memory leak: A defect in a program's dynamic store allocation logic that causes it to fail to
reclaim memory after it has finished using it, eventually causing the program to fail due to
lack of memory.

metric: A measurement scale and the method used for measurement.

milestone: A point in time in a project at which defined (intermediate) deliverables and
results should be ready.

modelling tool: A tool that supports the validation of models of the software or system

moderator: The leader and main person responsible for an inspection or other review

monitor: A software tool or hardware device that runs concurrently with the component or
system under test and supervises, records and/or analyses the behavior of the component or

monkey testing: Testing by means of a random selection from a large range of inputs and by
randomly pushing buttons, ignorant on how the product is being used.

multiple condition coverage: The percentage of combinations of all single condition
outcomes within one statement that have been exercised by a test suite. 100% multiple
condition coverage implies 100% condition determination coverage.

multiple condition testing: A white box test design technique in which test cases are
designed to execute combinations of single condition outcomes (within one statement).

mutation analysis: A method to determine test suite thoroughness by measuring the extent to
which a test suite can discriminate the program from slight variants (mutants) of the

N-switch coverage: The percentage of sequences of N+1 transitions that have been exercised
by a test suite.

N-switch testing: A form of state transition testing in which test cases are designed to execute
all valid sequences of N+1 transitions.

negative testing: Tests aimed at showing that a component or system does not work.
Negative testing is related to the testers’ attitude rather than a specific test approach or test
design technique, e.g. testing with invalid input values or exceptions.

non-conformity: Non fulfillment of a specified requirement.

non-functional requirement: A requirement that does not relate to functionality, but to
attributes such as reliability, efficiency, usability, maintainability and portability.

non-functional testing: Testing the attributes of a component or system that do not relate to
functionality, e.g. reliability, efficiency, usability, maintainability and portability.

non-functional test design techniques: Procedure to derive and/or select test cases for nonfunctional testing based on an analysis of the specification of a component or system
without reference to its internal structure.

off-the-shelf software: A software product that is developed for the general market, i.e. for a
large number of customers, and that is delivered to many customers in identical format.

operability: The capability of the software product to enable the user to operate and control it.

operational acceptance testing: Operational testing in the acceptance test phase, typically
performed in a simulated real-life operational environment by operator and/or
administrator focusing on operational aspects, e.g. recoverability, resource-behavior,
installability and technical compliance.

operational environment: Hardware and software products installed at users’ or customers’
sites where the component or system under test will be used. The software may include
operating systems, database management systems, and other applications.

operational profile: The representation of a distinct set of tasks performed by the component
or system, possibly based on user behavior when interacting with the component or
system, and their probabilities of occurance. A task is logical rather that physical and can
be executed over several machines or be executed in non-contiguous time segments.

operational profile testing: Statistical testing using a model of system operations (short
duration tasks) and their probability of typical use.

operational testing: Testing conducted to evaluate a component or system in its operational

orthogonal array: A 2-dimensional array constructed with special mathematical properties,
such that choosing any two columns in the array provides every pair combination of each
number in the array.

orthogonal array testing: A systematic way of testing all-pair combinations of variables
using orthogonal arrays. It significantly reduces the number of all combinations of
variables to test all pair combinations.

output: A variable (whether stored within a component or outside) that is written by a

output domain: The set from which valid output values can be selected.

output value: An instance of an output.

pair programming: A software development approach whereby lines of code (production
and/or test) of a component are written by two programmers sitting at a single computer.
This implicitly means ongoing real-time code reviews are performed.

pair testing: Two persons, e.g. two testers, a developer and a tester, or an end-user and a
tester, working together to find defects. Typically, they share one computer and trade
control of it while testing.

pairwise testing: A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to
execute all possbile discrete combinations of each pair of input parameters.

pass: A test is deemed to pass if its actual result matches its expected result.

pass/fail criteria: Decision rules used to determine whether a test item (function) or feature
has passed or failed a test.

path: A sequence of events, e.g. executable statements, of a component or system from an
entry point to an exit point.

path coverage: The percentage of paths that have been exercised by a test suite. 100% path
coverage implies 100% LCSAJ coverage.

path sensitizing: Choosing a set of input values to force the execution of a given path.

path testing: A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute

peer review: A review of a software work product by colleagues of the producer of the
product for the purpose of identifying defects and improvements. Examples are inspection,
technical review and walkthrough.

performance: The degree to which a system or component accomplishes its designated
functions within given constraints regarding processing time and throughput rate.

performance indicator: A high level metric of effectiveness and/or efficiency used to guide
and control progressive development, e.g. lead-time slip for software development.

performance profiling: Definition of user profiles in performance, load and/or stress testing.
Profiles should reflect anticipated or actual usage based on an operational profile of a
component or system, and hence the expected workload.

performance testing: The process of testing to determine the performance of a software

performance testing tool: A tool to support performance testing and that usually has two
main facilities: load generation and test transaction measurement. Load generation can
simulate either multiple users or high volumes of input data. During execution, response
time measurements are taken from selected transactions and these are logged. Performance
testing tools normally provide reports based on test logs and graphs of load against
response times.

phase test plan: A test plan that typically addresses one test phase.

pointer: A data item that specifies the location of another data item; for example, a data item
that specifies the address of the next employee record to be processed.

portability: The ease with which the software product can be transferred from one hardware
or software environment to another.

portability testing: The process of testing to determine the portability of a software product.

postcondition: Environmental and state conditions that must be fulfilled after the execution
of a test or test procedure.

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