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Articles On Testing

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Articles On Testing

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CSTE Certification Questions 12


CSTE Certficiation question dumps on Software testing continued.


68.   Most common cause of defect is ________.
    a. failure to estimate
            b. failure to assess risks
            c. ambiguous or incomplete requirements
            d. weak communication

69.  Following are the most effective way of communicating moral guidance EXCEPT:
    a. Verbal communication
            b. Lead by examples
            c. Written code of conduct
            d. CMM and ISO standards

70.  The types of conditions that cause erroneous or falsified input data include _____________.
    a. Early use of new software technology
            b. The evidence from intermediate processing is not retained
            c. Detailed analysis of the technology
            d. Records in one format may be interpreted according to a different format

71.  Inability to Substantiate Processing includes the following EXCEPT:
    a. The cost of substantiating processing exceeds the benefits derived from the process
            b. The evidence from intermediate processing is not retained
            c. Users inability to specify requirements in sufficient details
            d. Evidence is not retained long enough

72.  Unit testing is conducted in the development environment. State True or False.
            False

73.  Which of the following strategic issues needs to be addressed in successful software testing process?  
            a. Specify requirements in a quantifiable manner
            b. Consider using independent test terms
            c. Conduct formal technical review prior to testing
            d. All of the listed options

74.  Testing on, above and below the edges of classes is called _____________.
    a. Cause Effect Diagram
            b. Boundary Value Analysis
            c. Test Combinations
            d. Equilvalance Class Partitioning

75.   A defect can be defined in ____________.
    a. All of the listed options
            b. Producer’s viewpoint and customer’s viewpoint
            c. Producer’s viewpoint and tester’s viewpoint
            d. Customer’s viewpoint

76.  The functional testing that verifies the procedures to balance file function properly is called ______________.
    a. Compliance testing
            b. Compatibility testing
            c. File Integrity
            d. Integration testing

77.  The inability of a system or component to perform its required functions within specified requirements is called _______________.
            a. defect
            b. bug
            c. error
            d. Failure

78.   Objective of integration testing is to _________________.
    a. validate the application design and phase and prove application components can be successfully integrated
            b. All of the listed options
            c. integrate all components
            d. application integrated correctly into its environment

79.  The process of verifying the consistency, completeness and correctness of software at each stage of the development lifecycle is ______________.
    a. All of the listed options
            b. Management
            c. Leadership
            d. Lifecycle testing

80.   Test team should investigate the following characteristics in order to evaluate the potential magnitude of the risk EXCEPT:  
    a. Assess the severity of potential failures
            b. Identify the components for the system
            c. Evaluate contingency plans for this system and activities
            d. Build the test plan

81.  A _______________ is a software item that is an object of testing.
    a. Both proof of correctness and test item
            b. None of the listed options
            c. Test item
            d. Proof of correctness

82.  Deliverable base lining involves _____________.
    a. All of the listed options
            b. risks and define standards for each deliverable
            c. risks and identify key deliverables
            d. identify key deliverables and define standards for each deliverable

83.  ___________ is identifying defects in the stage in which they were created, rather than in later testing stages.
    a. Down stream
            b. Stage Containment
            c. Defect Validation
            d. Risk Strategy

84.  Which among the following is an example of functional testing?
    a. Condition coverage
            b. Branch Coverage
            c. Decision coverage
            d. Cause-Effect Graphing

85.  Difficulties surrounding the introduction of tools can arise in the following areas EXCEPT:
    a. Testers skills
            b. Obstacles in the computer environment
            c. Organizational obstacles
            d. Problems arising from the tools

86.  Which among the following are common items to focus on during Integration testing?
    a. All of the listed options
            b. Performance and load lists on individual application components
            c. Output interface file accuracy
            d. Validation of links between the client and server

87.        The reason for decomposing the strategic risks into tactical risks is to create test scenarios. State True or False.
            True


88. Testing that simulates problem in original environment so that an alternative processing environment can be tested is _____________.
    a. Performance testing
            b. Compliance testing
            c. Recovery testing
            d. Disaster testing

89.  The test schedule section includes which of the following EXCEPT?
    a. The types of tests that must be conducted.
            b. Initial estimates for each activity.
            c. Major test activities.
            d. Sequence of tests.

90.   _____________ testing verifies all the performance criteria have been achieved when the system is placed into production.
            a. Compliance testing
            b. User acceptance testing
            c. Security testing
            d. System testing

91.  Which of the following is not a category under tactical risks?
    a. Size Risks
            b. Resource Risks
            c. Structural Risks
            d. Technical Risks

92.  A deliverable is subject to _________________ once it is base lined.
    a. All of the listed options
            b. Risk management
            c. Defect Management
            d. Configuration Management
            e. Process Management

93.  The following tasks are provided to help understand what is necessary to develop a good test plan EXCEPT:        
            a. Analyze the test plan
            b. Understand the characteristics of the software being developed
            c. Build the test plan
            d. Write the test plan

94.  Most common reason for existence of large number of bugs in a software product is ___________.
    a. error in code
            b. incomplete testing
            c. wrong use of tools and techniques
            d. inadequate requirement analysis

95.  When does Test Design begin in SDLC?
           
            a. Low Level Design Phase
            b. High Level Design Phase
            c. Requirements Phase
            d. Testing Phase

96.  Verification methods include EXCEPT:
    a. Review
            b. Test Execution
            c. Walkthroughs
            d. Static analyzers

97.  Complexity can be measured by the following EXCEPT:
    a. Documentation complexity
            b. Business Complexity
            c. Size of module / unit
            d. Logic complexity

98.        Which one of the following statement is true about defects?
    a. Defects cannot be found in the supporting documentation
            b. A defect has greater impact even if it does not affect customer and the operation of the system
            c. All of the listed options
            d. A single defect can cause millions of failures

99.  When we talk about analysis performed by executing the program code, we are talking about ______________.
    a. Formal analysis
            b. Dynamic analysis
            c. Force field analysis
            d. None of the listed options

100.  The test design details which of the following?
    a. State of the application at the start of testing.
            b. The types of tests that must be conducted.
            c. Availability of test equipment.
            d. Sequence and increments of code delivery.

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CSTE Certification Questions 11


CSTE Certficiation question dumps on Software testing continued.


34.   _________ is used to verify processing of a single transaction can be reconstructed and examine review trail to verify the appropriate information.
           
            a. Correctness
            b. Audit trail
            c. Review trail
            d. Authorization

35.   Check for defects in process for the primary aim of correcting or establishing new process. This is
    a. Quality Control
            b. Quality Assurance
            c. Both Quality Control and Quality Assurance
            d. None of the listed options

36.   The following should be used to estimate ALE EXCEPT:
    a. Calculate an ALE using the loss and frequency tables
            b. Understanding of information services concepts and systems design
            c. Make a preliminary assessment of the loss
            d. Document the decision reached

37.  Techniques for Reporting a defect may include _______________.
    a. Computer forums, Electronic mails, help desk
            b. Static
            c. All of the listed options
            d. Operational

38.  The following entrance criteria are prerequisites to test plan EXCEPT:
            a. People Issues
            b. Test Objectives
            c. KT document
            d. Constraints

39.   The concept of defensive code involves _______________.
    a. adding a syntax checker in middle of cod
            b. adding code to a program so that two parts of program must fail before a major
            c. None of the listed options
            d. adding throw() and catch()

40.  Testing that attempts to find the level of processing at which, system can no longer function effectively is called _______B_______.
    a. Spike testing
            b. Stress testing
            c. Performance testing
            d. Load testing

41.  Decision to stop test execution should be based upon ___________________.
    a. successful use of specific test case design methodologies
            b. All of the listed options
            c. a percentage of coverage for each coverage category
            d. rate of error detection falls below a specified threshold

42.  When conducting risk analysis, the following major components are taken into consideration EXCEPT: 
    a. The probability of losing a customer.
            b. The probability that the negative event will occur.
            c. The potential loss or impact associated with the event.
            d. None of the listed options

43.  Which of the following testing demonstrates key functional capabilities by testing a string of units that accomplish a specific function in the application?
    a. Black box testing
            b. Thread testing
            c. Integration testing
            d. Unit testing

44.  Which among the following is a way to leverage a dynamic analyzer during system testing?
    a. All of the listed options
            b. Generate test cases based on black box test techniques
            c. Spend time to do a complete test plan
            d. Determine testing levels

45.  Following lead to improper use of technology EXCEPT:
    a. Early use of new hardware technology
            b. Detailed analysis of the technology
            c. Early use of new software technology
            d. Improper skill

46.  Which of the following factor assures that data is processed in accordance with the intents of management for processing of transactions?   
    a. Authorization
            b. Maintainability
            c. Access Control
            d. Service Levels

47.  When a defect is fixed in production rather than in requirement, how many times can this be expensive? 
            a. 1000 times
            b. 10 times
            c. 1 times
            d. 100 times

48.  Test efficiency is always directly proportional to ______________.
    a. Functional Coverage
            b. Product Cost
            c. Product Delivery  (maybe)
            d. Product Reliability

49.  Which one of the following is NOT the part of the test process improvement model?
    a. Derive new processes
            b. Conduct Assessment
            c. Initiate process improvement
            d. Analyze assessment output

50.  Which among the following is NOT a characteristic of good test case?
    a.. A good test case should be repeatable but not traceable to the requirements
            b. It is not traceable to the requirements
            c. Clear to execute
            d. It should be repeatable

51.  Due to a change in design, the requirements for an already coded critical software component got modified in its entirety. The developer had to modify the code based on the new requirements. Testing team is to choose the appropriate type of regression test to minimize the impact to the project schedule. Which type of regression test would you choose?
    a. Regional Regression Test
            b. Full Regression Test
            c. Unit Regression Test
            d. System Testing

52.  To log ‘incidents’ which of the following is used?
    a. User Report
            b. Defect tracking system
            c. Test log
            d. Test script

53.  Which among the following is the correct order in which Defect Resolution process should follow?   
    a. Schedule fix, Prioritize fix, fix defect, Report resolution
            b. Prioritize fix, fix defect, Report Resolution, Schedule fix
            c. Prioritize fix, Schedule fix, fix defect, Report resolution

54.   ______________________ is used to record data as it is gathered.
    a. Check sheet
            b. Certification
            c. All of the listed options
            d. Checkpoint

55. A change has been done to the design of an application. Which of the following is required after this change is implemented?
    a. All of the listed options
            b. Design re-verification
            c. Unit retesting
            d. None of the listed options
            e. Subsystem retesting

56. Steps involved in defect discovery are ________, _________ and __________.
    a. Acknowledge, Find, Report
            b. Find, Report, Acknowledge
            c. Find, Acknowledge, Report

57.  When should you stop testing?
    a. When you run out of time
            b. None of the listed options
            c. When quality goals established in the beginning of the projects are met
            d. When all test cases are done

58.  Test technique to simulate system disaster to verify manual procedures are adequate is called __________.
    a. Disaster testing
            b. Volume testing  (Maybe)
            c. Security testing
            d. Stress

59.  Defect is anything that causes customer dissatisfaction and this view is called __________.
    a. usability
            b. ease of use
            c. fit for use

60.  Amount of resources allocated to each test condition is determined by ______________.
    a. Global data coverage
            b. Both global data coverage and ranking
            c. Battle map
            d. Ranking

61.  Walter Shewhart is known for his work on ______D_________.
    a. Run chart
            b. Control chart
            c. Histogram
            d. Scatter Plot Diagrams

62.        Entering alphabetic characters when numeric characters are expected is not an example of test using valid data. State True or False.
            True

63.  What is incremental testing?
    a. Testing a string of units that accomplish a specific function in the application
            b. Testing the interfaces between the unit - tested programs as well as between components
            c. All of the listed options
            d. Testing transaction flow, input validation and functional completeness in incremental order

64.  One of the most commonly identified weaknesses in software testing is ________________.
    a. lack of time
            b. lack of metrics
            c. lack of defects count
            d. lack of skilled resources

65.  Which among the following is the correct sequence to test execution?
    a. Set up test environment, identify test case, review test result, assign test scripts
            b. All of the listed options
            c. Set up test environments, identify test cases and test cycles, assign test scripts, review test results
            d. Identify test cases and test cycles, assign test scripts, set up test environments, review test cases

66.  A set of Boolean conditions such that complete test sets for the conditions uncover the same errors is ___________.
    a. Correctness
            b. Complete test set
            c. Consistent condition set
            d. Consistency

67.   Pareto voting is used in conjunction with _____________.
    a. Cause and effect (Fishbone)
            b. Vital Few
            c. 80-20
            d. Statistical process control

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CSTE Certification Questions 10


CSTE Certficiation question dumps on Software testing continued.


1.  Which one of the following is the correct definition for Policy?
    a. The step-by-step method that ensures that standards are met
            b. The measure used to evaluate products and identify nonconformance. The basis upon which adherence to policies is measured
            c. Policies provide direction; standards are the rules or measures
            d. Managerial desires and intents concerning either process (intended objectives) or products (desired attributes)

2.   The objective in Test design is to _____________.      
            a. minimize test maintenance costs
            b. detect as many defects as possible
            c. All of the listed options
            d. minimize test execution cost

3.  Testing for the existence or effectiveness of programmed controls requires using ___________.
            a. Complex data
            b. Valid data
            c. Redundant data
            d. Invalid data
4.  Work Processes constitute the following EXCEPT:
    a. Standard
            b. Process
            c. Procedure
            d. Policy

5.  Guidelines to Writing the Test Plans are EXCEPT:
    a. Finish early
            b. Calculate the planning effort
            c. Start Early
            d. Spend the time to do a complete Test Plan

6.  Test tool to conduct a recovery test to determine that it can be performed within required time frame is called ____________.               
            a. Disaster test
            b. Tracing  (maybe)
            c. Confirmation or Examination
            d. Recovery testing

7.  Which among the following techniques is NOT used for negative testing?
            a. Equivalence Partitioning
            b. Boundary Value Analysis
            c. State Transition
            d. Error Guessing

8.  The largest cost of quality is from production failure. State True or False.
            True    

9.  Which of the following statement is NOT correct?
    a. 90 percent of all defects are caused by process problems
            b. Reviews are generally greater than 65 percent efficient in finding defects
            c. 60 percent of software defects originate in the requirements phase of the project
            d. Over 50 percent of life cycle of software system is spent on requirements

10.  Which among the following is an important attribute for test case?
    a. Test Description & Expected Result
            b. Test Description & Actual Result
            c. Test Case ID & Expected Result
            d. Expected Result and Actual Result

11.  Without preparation of a test plan, at an earlier testing phase, tests may be ______________.
    a. uneconomical and ineffective
            b. None of the listed options
            c. effective
            d. economical

12.  High priority activity in any defect management program should be __________.
    a. to prevent defects
            b. All of the listed options
            c. to identify the best prevention techniques and implement them
            d. to improve the process

13.  Regression analysis is used for the following EXCEPT:
    a. Projecting performance based on multiple variables
            b. Find the regression candidates
            c. Probing to determine the cause of some unfavorable event
            d. Cause and effect relationship of two variables

14.  The process of generating test sets for structural testing based on use of complexity or coverage metrics is called _________________.
    a. Metric based test data generation
            b. Regression testing
            c. Cyclomatic complexity
            d. Quality function deployment

15. Following are the valid Defect Severity EXCEPT:
            a. Showstopper
            b. Critical
            c. Minor
            d. Major

16.  _______A_______ is the method of testing the maintainability of the application system.
    a. Inspections
            b. Code Walkthroughs
            c. Reviews
            d. Functional testing

17. Which of the following is not one of Deming's 14 points for management?
    a. Adopt a new philosophy
            b. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force
            c. Create constancy of purpose
            d. Mobility of management

18.  Which among the following is a technique designed to ensure the process employed are adequate to produce the desired result and process is being followed?
    a. Quality Control
            b. Testing Methodology
            c. Quality Assurance
            d. Testing Strategy

19. Which one of the following statement is incorrect?
            a. Policies set directions
            b. Policies are developed by senior managers
            c. Policies defines the areas in which processes will be developed
            d. Policies are required in all the areas

20.  Given the following costs:
User documentation - $ 1000 Rework - $ 1500
Design - $ 400 Review of User Documents - $ 800, Code review - $ 1200, The cost of Quality is ______________.
    a. $4,000
            b. $5,000
            c. $2,400
            d. $3,500

21.  Defect Density is calculated by ______________.
    a. Valid Defects/ Effort
            b. Total no. of Defects/ Effort
            c. Invalid Defects/ Valid Defects
            d. Valid Defects/ Total no. of Defect

22.        Effectiveness is doing things right and efficiency is doing the right things. State True or False.
            False

23.  The effective Control environment strive for everything EXCEPT:
    a. Attitude of integrity
            b. Control consciousness and positive “tone at the top”
            c. Competent people
            d. Defect free product

24.   Stage containment means _____________.
    a. creation of stage wise work breakdown structure
            b. identifying defects within the phase where they originate
            c. defect prevention
            d. creating document containing activities of a particular stage

25.  During software acceptance, the testing technique that is relied upon for more accurate results (than any other testing techniques listed below) is __________.
    a. White Box
            b. Incremental
            c. Black Box
            d. Thread

26.  ALE estimation stands for _____________.
    a. Actual loss expectation
            b. Annual Loss estimation
            c. Annual loss expectation
            d. Actual Loss estimation

27.  Following are the guidelines to establish an organizational structure EXCEPT:
    a. Establish a Process engineering committee
            b. Let the standard Ad Hoc committees develop the technical standard
            c. Process engineering committee
            d. Process reengineering committee

28.  Which of the following Software Factors correctly reflects-?

"Employee gross pay can be substantiated by supporting documentation.
Sales tax paid to a specific state can be substantiated by the supporting invoices.
Payments made to vendors can be substantiated should the vendor disavow receiving the payment."
            a. File Integrity
            b. Audit Trail
            c. Authorization
            d. Continuity of Process
            e. Service Levels

29.  Which of the following is an Informal Analysis of the program source code yielding computer software ready for testing?  
    a. Code Walkthrough
            b. Code Inspection
            c. Code Verification
            d. Functional Review

30.  Which of the following statement about different risks type is correct?
    a. Strategic risks are the high - level business risks faced by the software system.
            b. Tactical risks are subsets at a higher level of the strategic risks.
            c. It is not difficult to create test scenarios for high-level risks.

31.  Removing or reducing which of the following can help in diminishing the undesirable behavior?
    a. Promotion & Training
            b. Incentive & Temptations
            c. Training & Promotion
            d. Incentive & Promotion

32.  Which of the following is a correct definition of risk analysis?
            a. Risk analysis is something capable of exploiting vulnerability in the security of a computer system or application. Risk analysis includes both hazards and events that can trigger flaws.
            b. Risk analysis is an analysis of an organization’s information resources, its existing controls, and its remaining organization and computer system vulnerabilities. It combines the loss potential for each resource or combination of resources with an estimated rate of occurrence to establish a potential level of damage in dollars or other assets.
            c. Risk analysis is the potential loss to an organization, as for example, the risk resulting from the misuse of its computer. This may involve unauthorized disclosure, unauthorized modification, and/or loss of information resources, as well as the authorized but incorrect use of a computer. Risk can be measured by performing risk analysis.
            d. None of the listed options

33.  Some organizations divide people into four categories when attempting to identify issues EXCEPT:       
    a. People who will help the software system happen
            b. People who will attempt to make the software system not happen
            c. People who will hope the software system happens
            d. People who will make the software system happen


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