ISTQB Certification Foundation Level Terms 7

test manager: The person responsible for project management of testing activities and resources, and evaluation of a test object. The individual who directs, controls, administers, plans and regulates the evaluation of a test object.

test management: The planning, estimating, monitoring and control of test activities, typically carried out by a test manager.

test management tool: A tool that provides support to the test management and control part of a test process. It often has several capabilities, such as testware management, scheduling of tests, the logging of results, progress tracking, incident management and test reporting.

Test Maturity Model (TMM): A five level staged framework for test process improvement, related to the Capability Maturity Model (CMM), that describes the key elements of an effective test process.

Test Maturity Model Integrated (TMMi): A five level staged framework for test process improvement, related to the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), that describes the key elements of an effective test process.

test monitoring: A test management task that deals with the activities related to periodically checking the status of a test project. Reports are prepared that compare the actuals to that which was planned.

test object: The component or system to be tested.

test objective: A reason or purpose for designing and executing a test.

test oracle: A source to determine expected results to compare with the actual result of the software under test. An oracle may be the existing system (for a benchmark), a user manual, or an individual’s specialized knowledge, but should not be the code.

test performance indicator: A high level metric of effectiveness and/or efficiency used to guide and control progressive test development, e.g. Defect Detection Percentage (DDP).

test phase: A distinct set of test activities collected into a manageable phase of a project, e.g. the execution activities of a test level.

test plan: A document describing the scope, approach, resources and schedule of intended test activities. It identifies amongst others test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, degree of tester independence, the test environment, the test design techniques and entry and exit criteria to be used, and the rationale for their choice, and any risks requiring contingency planning. It is a record of the test planning process.

test planning: The activity of establishing or updating a test plan.

test policy: A high level document describing the principles, approach and major objectives of the organization regarding testing.

Test Point Analysis (TPA): A formula based test estimation method based on function point

test procedure specification: A document specifying a sequence of actions for the execution of a test. Also known as test script or manual test script.

test process: The fundamental test process comprises test planning and control, test analysis and design, test implementation and execution, evaluating exit criteria and reporting, and
test closure activities.

Test Process Improvement (TPI): A continuous framework for test process improvement that describes the key elements of an effective test process, especially targeted at system
testing and acceptance testing.

test progress report: A document summarizing testing activities and results, produced at regular intervals, to report progress of testing activities against a baseline (such as the original test plan) and to communicate risks and alternatives requiring a decision to

test reproduceability: An attribute of a test indicating whether the same results are produced each time the test is executed.

test run: Execution of a test on a specific version of the test object.

test schedule: A list of activities, tasks or events of the test process, identifying their intended start and finish dates and/or times, and interdependencies.

test script: Commonly used to refer to a test procedure specification, especially an automated

test session: An uninterrupted period of time spent in executing tests. In exploratory testing, each test session is focused on a charter, but testers can also explore new opportunities or issues during a session. The tester creates and executes test cases on the fly and records
their progress.

test specification: A document that consists of a test design specification, test case specification and/or test procedure specification.

test strategy: A high-level description of the test levels to be performed and the testing within those levels for an organization or programme (one or more projects).

test suite: A set of several test cases for a component or system under test, where the post condition of one test is often used as the precondition for the next one.

test summary report: A document summarizing testing activities and results. It also contains an evaluation of the corresponding test items against exit criteria

test target: A set of exit criteria.

test tool: A software product that supports one or more test activities, such as planning and control, specification, building initial files and data, test execution and test analysis.

test type: A group of test activities aimed at testing a component or system focused on a specific test objective, i.e. functional test, usability test, regression test etc. A test type may take place on one or more test levels or test phases.

testability: The capability of the software product to enable modified software to be tested.

testability review: A detailed check of the test basis to determine whether the test basis is at an adequate quality level to act as an input document for the test process.

testable requirements: The degree to which a requirement is stated in terms that permit  establishment of test designs (and subsequently test cases) and execution of tests to determine whether the requirements have been met.

tester: A skilled professional who is involved in the testing of a component or system.

testing: The process consisting of all life cycle activities, both static and dynamic, concerned with planning, preparation and evaluation of software products and related work products to determine that they satisfy specified requirements, to demonstrate that they are fit for purpose and to detect defects.

testware: Artifacts produced during the test process required to plan, design, and execute tests, such as documentation, scripts, inputs, expected results, set-up and clear-up procedures, files, databases, environment, and any additional software or utilities used in

thread testing: A version of component integration testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by levels of a hierarchy.

top-down testing: An incremental approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested.

traceability: The ability to identify related items in documentation and software, such as requirements with associated tests. See also horizontal traceability, vertical traceability.

understandability: The capability of the software product to enable the user to understand whether the software is suitable, and how it can be used for particular tasks and conditions of

unreachable code: Code that cannot be reached and therefore is impossible to execute.

usability: The capability of the software to be understood, learned, used and attractive to the user when used under specified conditions.

usability testing: Testing to determine the extent to which the software product is understood, easy to learn, easy to operate and attractive to the users under specified

use case: A sequence of transactions in a dialogue between a user and the system with a tangible result.

use case testing: A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute user scenarios.

user test: A test whereby real-life users are involved to evaluate the usability of a component or system.

unit test framework: A tool that provides an environment for unit or component testing in which a component can be tested in isolation or with suitable stubs and drivers. It also provides other support for the developer, such as debugging capabilities.

V-model: A framework to describe the software development life cycle activities from requirements specification to maintenance. The V-model illustrates how testing activities can be integrated into each phase of the software development life cycle.

validation: Confirmation by examination and through provision of objective evidence that the requirements for a specific intended use or application have been fulfilled.

variable: An element of storage in a computer that is accessible by a software program by referring to it by a name.

verification: Confirmation by examination and through provision of objective evidence that  specified requirements have been fulfilled.

vertical traceability: The tracing of requirements through the layers of development documentation to components.

volume testing: Testing where the system is subjected to large volumes of data.

walkthrough: A step-by-step presentation by the author of a document in order to gather information and to establish a common understanding of its content.

white-box test design technique: Procedure to derive and/or select test cases based on an analysis of the internal structure of a component or system.

white-box testing: Testing based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component or

Wide Band Delphi: An expert based test estimation technique that aims at making an accurate estimation using the collective wisdom of the team members.

wild pointer: A pointer that references a location that is out of scope for that pointer or that
does not exist.


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