CSTE Certification Questions 6

CSTE Certficiation question dumps on Software testing continued.
171. Standard states
a)    what must happen to meet the intent of the policy
b)    how to meet the requirements
c)   both A and B
d)    None of the above

172. Standards convert intentions into specific rules   (true / false)

173. Standards must be
a)   measurable
b)   attainable
c)   necessary
d)    nice to have
e)    all the above

174. Which of the following determines standards
a)   customer requirements
b)   internal requirements
c)    cost and schedule requirements
d)    all the above

175. Which of the following is true
a)    procedures are not always required and unless critical, should be minimised
b)    skill set and knowledge requirements are prerequisites for performing the procedure
c)    if the procedures are followed ALWAYS standards will be automatically met
d)   All of the above
e)    none of the above

176. Controls should be designed based on the criticality of the process and what needs to be checked (True / false)

177. Quality control procedures are
a)    preventive costs
b)   appraisal costs
c)    failure costs
d)    none of the above

178. Measurement provides quantitative feedback to an organisation about whether it is achieving its goals and moving towards its results (true / false)

179. The purpose of process improvement is
a)    to change the process
b)   to reduce the frequency of defects including process ineffectiveness
c)    both a and b
d)    none of the above

180. Process improvement uses facts(measurement results) to identify the root causes of problems.
(true / false )

181. The long range objective for process improvement is to
a)    eliminate the need for quality assurance activities
b)   eliminate the need for quality control activities
c)    both a and b
d)    none of the above

182. If the control limits are within the specification limits, the process is capable of satisfying the customer.    (True/False)


183. Does the process improvement plan need approval? If yes, who approves it ?
Yes, Senior management

184. Measure is the basic building block for measurement program.

185. Metrics is a derived unit of measurement

186. What are the two types of measurement?

Objective and Subjective Measurement

Objective measurement uses hard data that can be obtained by counting, weighing etc.
Subjective measurement is normally observed or perceived

187. What is Nominal data?
Nominal data cannot be subjected to arithmetic operations of any type and the values cannot be ranked in any natural order.

188. What is Ordinal data?
Ordinal data can be ranked, but differences or ratios between values are not meaningful.

189. What is interval data?
Interval data can be ranked and can exhibit meaningful differences between values

190. Give an example for interval data?
T.J. McCabe’s complexity metric is an example for interval data.

191. What is Ratio Data?
Ratio data has absolute zero and meaningful ratios can be calculated.

192.  For what are the measurement dashboards or key indicators used for?
Measurement dashboards or key indicators are used to monitor progress and to initiate change.

193. Before approving for use, what are the tests that the measures and metrics have to undergo?
1)    Reliability – Refers to the consistency of measurement
2)    Validity – indicates the degree to which a measure actually measures
3)    Ease of Use and Simplicity
4)    Timeliness – Refers whether the information can be reported in sufficient time to impact the decisions needed to manage effectively
5)    Calibration  - indicates the modification of a measurement so it becomes more valid

194. How to know a measurement is good?
The measures and the resulting metrics should be
1)    Simple and precisely definable
2)    Objective
3)    Easily Obtainable at reasonable cost
4)    Valid, measuring what they are intended to measure
5)    Robust, being relatively insensitive to intuitively small changes in the process or product


195. Give 2 examples of metrics for complexity measurement s?
a)    Cyclomatic complexity
b)    Knots

196. A knot is defined as a necessary crossing of directional lines in the graph.

197. The quality characteristics for software that have received considerable attention are correctness, reliability and maintenance.

198. Common causes are causes of variation that can be controlled by improving work processes.

199. Special causes are causes of variation that must be controlled outside the process.

200. Statistical tools are the only methods available to objectively quantify variation.

201. How many Components are in Risk and name all of those Components?
Three components
-      The event that could occur – the risk
-      The probability that the event will occur – the likelihood
-      The impact or consequence of the event if it occurs – the penalty

202. Risks can be categorized as one of the following:
-      Technical
-      Programmatic or performance
-      Supportability or environment
-      Cost
-      Schedule

203. How many Characteristics does Risk has and what are they?
Five Characteristics
-      Situational
-      Time based
-      Interdependent
-      Magnitude dependent
-      Value based

204. PMBOK stands for?
Project Management Body of Knowledge

205. How many processes are there to address risk management as per PMBOK?
Four processes
-      Risk Identification
-      Risk Qualification
-      Risk Response Development
-      Risk Response Control

206.  External risks can be controlled or influenced by the project team   ------------   TRUE/FALSE

207. Which of the following document will be required as a source of input when considering a list of possible risks?
a)  Product documentation     b)  Project documentation  c)  Historical Information d) All of the above 

208. In a traditional waterfall methodology, most risk management activity occurs close to milestone.          True/false

209. In a spiral development model the risk management activity falls in the explicit risk management portion.   True/false

210. Risk management is an independent auditing process.   True/False

211. Risk should be the sole responsibility of project manager. True/False

212. Within many software development organizations risk management remains ad hoc and incomplete.

213. Testing strategies is included in short term risk management.  True/False

214. Who should be involved in determining risk management
  1. Customer
  2. Management
  3. Development team
  4. All of the above
  5. None of the above
215.  Mitigating the risk by
a.    Minimizing the probability of occurrence
b.    Minimizing the value of impact
c.    Deflecting the risk elsewhere
d.    All of the above
e.    None of the above

216. A measurement program is defined as the ----------------------------------------
Ans: Entire set of activities that occur around quantitative data.

217. Mature organization use quantitative data to determine
  1. Requirements are complete
  2. To prevent problems
  3. Budget
  4. Schedule and project status
  5. All of the above

218. Immature organization use quantitative data to determine
  1. Requirements are complete
  2. To prevent problems
  3. Budget
  4. Schedule and project status
  5. All of the above

219. What are four major uses of Measurement?’
Ans:  1.Manage and control the process 
        2. Manage and control the product (review and testing)
        3. Improve the process (quantitative data gathered during process execution can              
             identify the weaknesses and therefore opportunities for improvement)
        4. Manage the risks             

220. Same software development process may be followed to produce two different applications.  -  True/False

221. What is risk?
Ans: Risk is a chance for something to go wrong.

222. How do we manage control and product?
Ans: Measure Quality by no.of defects, Mean time to failure (MTTF) Mean time to repair  
        (MTTR)
  Measure Performance by technical performance, measures specified by customer  
  and management.

223. How do we improve the process?
Ans: Identify the current performance, find how cost-efficient is the process. By measuring Time and effort.

224. How do we manage risks?
Ans: Identify the risks, its frequency, probability of risks occurring and impact of each risk if it occurs  derive risk management plan.

225. What are the four phases in installing a measurement program?
Ans: 1.build the measurement base
        2.Manage towards results
        3. Manage by process
        4. Management by fact

226. What are the key points in first phase of implementing a measuring program?
Ans:1. Define the objectives for the measurement program

2. Create an environment receptive to measurement (establish SLA between IT and users, establish quality measurement environment)

3. Define the measurement hierarchy
    
Three levels of quantitative data are mapped to 3-level organization tier.
a. Metrics – used by Line management such as variance between actual and budgeted 
      cost, user satisfaction, defects rates per LOC.
b. MeasuresStaff management uses basic measures such as product size, cycle time or defect count.
c. Strategic resultsSenior management uses strategic results dashboard to manage the IT function and track to mission, vision and goals.   
     
227. What do we mean by manage towards results?
Ans: a. Identify goals for desired business results
  b. Means for measuring each business result

228. What are the five steps in manage towards results phase?
Ans: a. Identify desired business results. If each has subject, action, target value and time frame, as it is much easier to identify measure for each.
   b. Identify current baseline
   c. Select a measure or metric for each result. Should be only 3 to 5 but not greater than 7
   d. Consider tradeoff between the results. For example consider the desired result Complete on time might affect Easy-to-read documentation.
   e. Based on baseline and desired result, determine a goal for each result metric. (Bench marking tool is best for this).

229. Quality is an attribute of
a) Product
b) Process
c) Standard
d) Policy

230. What does “IEC” expands to (E.g. As used with ISO/IEC 12207)?
a)    International Electronics Committee
b)    International Engineers Confederation
c)   International Electrotechnical Commission
d)    Internal Electronics Association


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